MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS SHORT NOTES

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MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS SHORT NOTES

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

  • IT IS A CHRONIC, PROGRESSIVE, NON-CONTAGIOUS, DEGENERATIVE DISEASE OF THE CNS CHARACTERIZED BY DEMYELINATION OF THE NEURONS.
  • DESTRUCTION OF MYELIN SHEATH OF NEURONS (MYELIN SHEATH IS ESSENTIAL FOR NORMAL CONDUCTION OF NERVE IMPULSES)
  • USUALLY OCCUR BETWEEN AGES OF 20 AND 40 YEARS

CAUSES

  • AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE (FORMATION OF ANTIGEN ANTIBODY COMPLEX)
  • VIRAL INFECTION
  • GENETIC FACTOR
  • PRECIPITATING FACTOR
  • PREGNANCY, FATIGUE, STRESS, INFECTION AND TRAUMA

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

  • PARESTHESIA, FATIGUE, WEAKNESS, ATAXIA, VERTIGO, TREMORS, SPASTICITY OF LOWER LIMBS, BLURRED VISION, DIPLOPIA, TRANSIENT BLINDNESS, NYSTAGMUS, DYSPHASIA, DECREASED PERCEPTION TO PAIN, TEMPERATURE, AND TOUCH
  • BLADDER AND BOWEL DISTURBANCES, DYSPHAGIA, POSITIVE BABINSKI REFLEX, HEMIPLEGIA, TETRAPLEGIA, PARAPLEGIA, DIPLEGIA, MONOPLEGIA, MEMORY CHANGES

DIAGNOSIS

  • MRI, EEG, CT SCAN
  • INCREASE GAMMA GLOBULIN LEVEL IN CSF

TREATMENT

  • ADMINISTER CORTICOSTEROIDS OR IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT
  • PLACE AN EYE PATCH ON THE EYE FOR DIPLOPIA
  • INITIATE PHYSICAL AND SPEECH THERAPY
  • INCREASE FLUID INTAKE AND EAT A BALANCED DIET, INCLUDING LOW-FAT DIET, HIGH FIBER FOODS, AND HIGH IN POTASSIUM.

MONOPLEGIA –

PARALYSIS OF A SINGLE LIMB

HEMIPLEGIA –

PARALYSIS OF ONE SIDE OF BODY

TETRAPLEGIA –

PARALYSIS OF ALL FOUR LIMBS

PARAPLEGIA –

PARALYSIS OF BOTH LOWER LIMBS

DYSPHAGIA –

DIFFICULTY IN SWALLOWING

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