INCREASED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE SHORT NOTES
INCREASED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE
- Normal ICP 5-15 mm Hg ( 7.5 -20 cm of H2O)
- Increased ICP can impede circulation to the brain, impede the absorption of CSF, affect the functioning of nerve cells and lead to brainstem compression and death.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
- Altered level of consciousness
- Widening pulse pressure, vomitting, pupil changes
- Babinski reflex (Dorsiflexion of the big toe and fanning of the other toes, elicited by firmly stroking the lateral aspect of the sole of the foot)
- Irritability, poor feeding, lethargy for infants
- Monitor vital signs
- Avoid administration of Morphine sulphate to prevent hypoxia
- Maintain mechanical ventilation (Paco2 at 30 to 35 mm Hg)
- Prevent shivering which can increase ICP
- Limit fluid intake to 1200 ml/day
- Instruct the client to avoid valsalva maneuver, coughing and sneezing
- Elevate the head of the bed 30 to 40 degrees.
- Administer anticonvulsants, Antipyretics, Muscle relaxants, Corticosteroids, Hyperosmotic agent as prescribed.