INCREASED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE SHORT NOTES

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INCREASED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE SHORT NOTES

INCREASED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE

  • Normal ICP 5-15 mm Hg ( 7.5 -20 cm of H2O)
  • Increased ICP can impede circulation to the brain, impede the absorption of CSF, affect the functioning of nerve cells and lead to brainstem compression and death.

CAUSES

  • Trauma
  • Hemorrhage
  • Tumors
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Edema
  • Inflammation

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

  • Altered level of consciousness
  • Headache
  • Widening pulse pressure, vomitting, pupil changes
  • Babinski reflex (Dorsiflexion of the big toe and fanning of the other toes, elicited by firmly stroking the lateral aspect of the sole of the foot)
  • Irritability, poor feeding, lethargy for infants
SHORT NOTES – CLICK HERE

TREATMENT

  • Monitor vital signs
  • Avoid administration of Morphine sulphate to prevent hypoxia
  • Maintain mechanical ventilation (Paco2 at 30 to 35 mm Hg)
  • Prevent shivering which can increase ICP
  • Limit fluid intake to 1200 ml/day
  • Instruct the client to avoid valsalva maneuver, coughing and sneezing
  • Elevate the head of the bed 30 to 40 degrees.
  • Administer anticonvulsants, Antipyretics, Muscle relaxants, Corticosteroids, Hyperosmotic agent as prescribed.
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READ MORE  HYPOTHYROIDISM SHORT NOTES

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