DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS SHORT NOTES

0
157

DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS

SHORT NOTES

  • A life-threatening complication of Type-1 Diabetic Mellitus that develops when a severe insulin deficiency occurs

PRECIPITATING FACTORS

  • Infection
  • Inadequate insulin dose

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

  • Kussmaul respiration
  • Fruity breath nausea, abdominal pain, dehydration, polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, dry skin, sunken eyes, coma

LABORATORY FINDINGS

  • Serum glucose more than 300mg/dL
  • Urine ketones=positive
TREATMENT
  • Treat dehydration with rapid infusion of 0.9% or 0.45% normal saline as prescribed
  • Dextrose added to IV fluids when the blood glucose level reaches 250 to 300 mg/dL
  • Treat hyperglycemia with insulin administration intravenously as prescribed
  • Correct electrolyte imbalances(potassium level may be elevated as a result of dehydration and acidosis)
  • Use short-duration insulin only
  • Monitor vital signs and urine output, potassium, and hourly glucose levels.
  • Monitor the client being treated for DKA closely for signs of increased intracranial pressure

SYNDROME OF INAPPROPRIATE ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE SECRETION (SIADH)

  • Excess ADH is released, but not in response to the  body’s need for it.

CAUSES

  • Trauma, stroke, malignancies, stress

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

  • Fluid volume overload
  • changes in level of consciousness
  • weight gain-hypertension, tachycardia, anorexia, hyponatremia

TREATMENT

  • Monitor vital signs and neurological status
  • Provide intake and output and daily weight
  • Monitor fluid and electrolyte balance
  • Monitor serum and urine osmolality
  • Restrict fluid intake
  • Administer diuretics and IV fluids (usually Normal saline or hypertonic saline) as prescribed
  • Administer Demeclocycline hydrochloride as prescribed
SHARE HERE
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
READ MORE  CUSHING SYNDROME SHORT NOTES

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here